Information Mizo Society & Culture

1966 — Thlawhtheihna hmanga Mizoram beih

by Rochamliana, Mission Veng

BUAINA
Khatih hunlaia Information Officer pakhat chuan, “1965 lam atang daih khan Assam sorkar khan ‘buaina a inmung ru vung vung’ tih Report mumal tak tak hi Mizoram atangin vawi duai lo an dawng fo tawh thin,” tih thu min hrilh a. An hna peng khat anih avanga Assam sorkar hnenah Intelligence Report chi hrang hrang zuk thawn hram hram thin tute zinga mi kha anih avangin a thusawi hi a dik thawkhat in a rinawm. Mahse, The Mizo Dilemma tih ziaktu Amit Kumar Nag-a thukhawchang ang deuhvin Assam Chief Minister Bimala Prasad Chaliha kha a lalna Assam State atanga Mizoram sahthlak ting ai chuan India ram atanga Mizoram sahthlak hlawk law law pawh kha pawi ti lo zawk niawm tak khan a khawsa zui ta zel a.

Mizoram buaina chungchangah kut sil tum rawngkai deuhvin Assam Legislative Assembly-ah a hlimchhawna thil awmzia a sawifiah laiin H. K. Bawihchhuaka, Ch. Chhunga leh C. Pahlira te’n June 22, 1966-a Prime Minister Indira Gandhi hnena Memorandum an thehluhah chuan chiang takin Assam sorkar mai bakah India sorkar laipui ngei pawhin thil awmzia an haider rei zia hetiang deuh hian an tarlang thung a— “December 1965 daih tawh khan Union Home Minister Gulzarilal Nanda chuan Pakistan-a ralthuam la tura Laldenga mi leh sa kalte chu dang turin Assam sorkarin Border Security Force-te an thuam that thu a lo sawi tawh a. Tin, Pakistan-in MNF te hi ralthuam leh zirtirna an pe tih pawmtu pawh Assam sorkar ngei hi an ni. G. L. Nanda bawk hian February 1966 khan Pakistan-a training zuk la zo Mizo tlangval mi 200 velte chu December 1965-ah Pakistan atangin Mizo Hills panin an lokir leh thu a lo sawi tawh bawk…” tiin.

B. P. Chaliha leh Mizo Union hotute inkar chhiat chhoh zel dan kha thuziak dang dang bakah Ch. Saprawnga ziak Factors Contributing to the Mizo Problem (Tribal Mirror, Vol-III, Spring, 1967) ah khan tarlan a ni a. Tihtakzeta Mizo Union vuakchhiat a tum luattukna bakah Laldenga tawngkam thiamna khan Chaliha khawthlir a tikhawbaw nasa hle a. Sorkar laipui lamin Mizoram chungchanga thurawn an rawn lakna berin thil awmzia diktak hre tura ngaihtuahna fim a hman theih miau loh avangin buaina inmung mek chu a hun takah hmeh mih a ni ta lo. H. K. Bawihchhuaka, Ch. Chhunga leh C. Pahlira ten an Memorandum hmangin, “Mizo Union chhutchhiat vek a duhna avangin India Constitution laka a rinawmna pawh a mangnghilh zo ta” tia an puhna khan dikna chen thui tak a nei ngei ang.

Chutiang boruak karah chuan Mizoram Independence Movement chuan Delhi-a sorkar hotute a barakhaih hle a. Lok Sabha-ah Union Home Minister Gulzarilal Nanda chuan statement siamin, “Kan thuneihna hnuaia hmanrua kan neih ang zawng zawngte hmangin helhote chungah hremna na thei ang ber pek an ni ang” a ti a. March 2, 1966-ah Assam sorkarin Mizoram pumpui chu Armed Forces (Assam & Manipur) Special Power Act 1958 hmangin rambuai ah a puang zui ta nghal a ni.

CHUNG LAM ATANGA BEIHNA
Sorkar laipuia thuneitute chuan ngun taka an ngaihtuah hnuin MNF hoten Aizawla 1st Assam Rifles Headquarters bakah hmun hrang hranga India sipai Post awmte an lak zawh hma ngeia chhanchhuah hman tumin ruahmanna an siam ta zung zung a. Chumi atan chuan Defence Ministry lam chuan thutlukna namailo leh nghawng na tak an rawn siam ta a. Chu chu— Thlawhtheihna hmanga Mizorama helhote beih (Air Operation) a ni. Chu thutlukna chu Defence Ministry atangin Air Headquarters, New Delhi-ah thawn a ni a (Hetih hunlaia Air Chief Marshal chu Arjan Singh a ni). Air Headquarters, New Delhi atangin Eastern Air Command Headquarters, Shillong-ah thawn a ni leh a. Eastern Air Command Headquarters, Shillong-a an hotu ber Air Vice Marshal hnenah a lo thleng ta a ni.

Sorkar laipui thupek angin Indian Air Force (IAF) chu helho bei turin an inbuatsaih ta chuk chuk a. Amaherawhchu, IAF Base hnaivai deuh Tezpur atang pawhin Mizoram chu thlawhna a han beih nan meuh chuan a hla deuh si a. Chuvangin, Eastern Air Command chuan ruahmanna thar an siam thuai a. Mizoram beihna tur atan liau liauvin Silchar bula Kumbigram Airfield chu an cheitha chawpchilh ta a.

Kumbigram Airfield hi Indopui II-na hunlaiin Royal Air Force (RAF) Base lian tak a ni a, RAF Squadron 5 lai an awm thin nghe nghe a. Helai hmun atang hian Burma Front leh a aia chhak mah thlengin British ho khan an han chheu darh thin a, Eastern Front-ah chuan Base lian ber a ni. Indopui II-na zawh hnu khan RAF lam chuan an chhuahsan ta vek a. India Independence hnuah helai hmun hi Indian Airlines-in khualzin phur chi thlawhtheihna tumna atan an hmang zui a. Calcutta, Agartala, Aizawl leh Imphal-ah te thlawkin, nikhatah Kumbigram-ah hian vawikhat emaw te an tum thin a. Indian Airlines-in an duhna hmun bik an hmanzui lai tih loh phei chu hluihlawn a ni a, a ram deuh vek tawh nghe nghe a ni.

Military Operation atan he hmun hi darkar 48 chhunga peih hman vek tura ngaih a nih avangin Eastern Air Command Headquarters, Shillong thupek angin IAF Tezpur Base atangin 110 Helicopter Unit-te chuan Kumbigram hi an pan nghal a. A hmun tihfaiin Puan In an kaih a. Riahna, chaweina, chenna bakah mamawh dang atan temporary-in buk an sa a. Ruahsur laka him ngei turin thlawhna dahna turte, silaimu leh hriamhrei dang (arms & ammunition) dahna turte, ei leh in dahna turte bakah tuldang apiang chhekkhawlna turin buk an sa chawp bawk a. Tichuan, Kumbigram Airfield-ah chuan Tezpur-a 110 Helicopter Unit atangin detachment in Helicopter thenkhat an insuan ta phawt a ni.

Indopui II-na hunlaia RAF hovin Kumbigram Airfield an hman lai khan indo thlawhna tha leh chak tak a la awm lova. Chuvangin, he Airfield tumkawng (runway) pawh hi a tawi deuhva, 2000 yard chauh a ni. Fighter tumna tur atan chuan tumkawng hi 2500-2700 yard tal anih a ngai a, duhthusamah phei chuan 3000 yard ni tura ngaih a ni. Mahse, tumkawng bik hi chu chawpchilh taka siam ngaihna a awm loh avangin, anih ang angin Kumbigram Airfield hi hman a ngai ta a. Airfield hluihlawn tawh anih avangin a hungna (security fencing) te pawh a awm tawh mang lova. Chuvangin, hetih laia Silchar bula Indian Army lo inkulh sa te chu Airfield veng turin rin nghal an ni ta bawk a. Air Traffic Control Tower-te pawh theih ang anga siamthat a ni bawk.

IAF in Mizoram beih nana thlawhna a hmante chu Fighter chi 2— Toofani Fighter (France Ouragans) leh Hunter Fighter-te an ni a. Heng thlawhna te hi a hunlai chuan IAF thlawhna tha leh chhuanvawr berte an ni. Hunter phei hi chu hemi hma lawka Indo-Pakistan War (1965) ah pawh an leklam ber a ni a, tunah erawh heng thlawhna te hi hluihlawn an ni tawh. Kumbigram Airfield-ah chuan Tezpur atangin Senior Pilot ten tumchhinna (trail landing) an han nei hmasa a. Toofani bik chu him takin an tum thei mai a. Chuvangin, Tezpur atangin detachment in 27 Squadron-a Toofani Fighter thenkhat bakah Ground Crew-te, Technician-te, Engineer-te leh Supporting Staff reng rengte chu an insuanchhova. Toofani Fighter Senior Pilot pakhat chu Detachment Commander-a ruat niin helai hmun hi a thutchilh nghal a. Kumbigram hi hman (activate) anih hnua Commander hmasa ber chu Group Captain J. T. Bouche a ni. MNF ten an lak theih tak loh Aizawla 1st Assam Rifles Headquarters atangin Wireless hmanga target an rawn hrilh angin Kumbigram atang hian Mizoram chu nikhatah vawi engemawzat an han kap ta thin a ni.

IAF thlawhna pakhat zawk Hunter Fighter hi Jorhat a awm 17 Squadron te enkawl a ni thung a. Hunter pawh hian Kumbigram-ah trail landing an han nei ve a. Mahse, anni tan chuan tumkawng chu a tawi lu deuh avangin a him lova ngaih a ni ta a. Chuvangin, anni Squadron bik hi chuan Jorhat atangin Mizoram an rawn kah a ngai ta thung a ni. Enthlak hna (reconnaissance) thawk tur leh a tuldan anga thla la turin 101 Vampire Fighter Squadron-te chu Tezpur atangin Mizoram chungah vawi engemawzat an han thlawk kual bawk a, he Squadron hi chu kap chi an ni lo. Vampire Fighter thlalak leh 1st AR Hqrs. atanga Wireless thuthawn avangin Fighter-te hian kah tur dik tak an kah fuh theih phah hle a. IAF hian Mizoram hi chawlhkar 2 chhung vel zet thahnemngai takin an kap niin a lang.

Kumbigram-ah hian Tezpur atanga sipaite chakkhai tinreng phurchho turin thil phur chi thlawhtheihna lian (transport plane) chi 3 hman a ni a. Pakhat chu Jorhat atanga lokal Dakota Squadron an ni a. Agra atanga lokal Fairchild Package Transport Plane hman a ni bawk a. Guwahati atangin 33 Carribou Squadron, Carribou Transport Plane (twin engine/ Canada siam) thenkhat hman a ni bawk. Sipaiin Mizoram an awp hnuah Fighter-te hi anmahni Base-ah theuh an kir leh ta vek a. Helicopter-te erawh hun engemaw chhung chu Tezpur atangin detachment in an han inawmchhawk thin a. Transport Plane-te pawh a tul apianga hman turin hun engemawchen chu Kumbigram-ah hian an awm zui bawk a. Kumbigram Airfield hi IAF lamin Civil Aviation hnen atangin an lachhawng nghal a. IAF Permanent Airforce Station turin an cheitha a, tunthlengin IAF Helicopter Base-ah hman zui zel a ni ta a ni.

MIN BOMB NGE MIN KAP?
India zalen hnua British ho an insaseng hnu pawh khan Goa bik kha chu Portuguese ho luah ram (colony) anih avangin Portuguese ho khan an la awp zui reng a. India sorkarin chhuak tura vawiduailo a ngen hnu pawha a sawngsawhlawt loh avangin tharuma nekchhuak turin December 18, 1961 khan Indian Army ten IAF te nen Goa (Portuguese ho) hi an bei ta a. Chumi hnu kum 5 ah MNF helte chhu mit turin IAF te hi Mizoram hmun hrang hrang bei tura tirhchhuah an ni leh a. Heng tum 2 bak hi chu India sorkarin ama ramchhunga buaina tudai turin Air Operation a hman zui hriat a ni ta rih lo. Goa beihnaah khan IAF te khan anmahni ram mite an bei lova, mipui nawlpui chenna hmun pawh an bitum lova, Portuguese ho enkawl lai Airfield thenkhat leh Radio Station-te leh anmahni lo kap lettu lawng thenkhat an bei chauh niin hemi chungchang ziaktuten an tarlang. Mizoram an beih tum erawh chuan MNF hel hruaitute awmkhawmna leh ralrelna hmun pawimawh deuh deuh nia an hriat an tawngpawng bitumna lamah mipui nawlpuiin namen lovin an tawrh phah ta a ni. Nagaland-ah India sipaite chakkhai phurhnan IAF in Transport Plane an hmang nasa hle a. Mahse, Fighter erawh hman a ni lo. Naga helte khan IAF Dakota pakhat an kapthla mial a, he thlawhna a chuang mi 4 (Pilot, Co-Pilot, Flight Navigator & Flight Engineer) te chu an man nghe nghe. Mizorama Air Operation neih anih lai a India sorkar hruaitu pawimawhte chu Indira Gandhi (Prime Minister), Gulzarilal Nanda (Home Minister) leh Y. B. Chavan (Defence Minister) te an ni.

IAF ten Mizoram beih nana an hman te chu— (1) Front Gun (FG): Hei hi Machine Gun-a ni a. Hunter-in 20-mm. Caliber FG leh Toofani-in 16-mm. Caliber FG a hmang. (2) Rocket Propeller (RP): Hei hi Mizoten Bomb tia kan sawi ber kha a ni. Aizawl Circuit House kap sawp ruptu pawh kha he RP hi a ni a, thlawhtheihna thla hnuai atangin alhchhuak zuai chunga kahchhuah thin a ni. Air Force hovin Mizoramah khan 60-mm RP chauh an hmang niin Airforce Officer (Retd.) pakhatin min hrilh a. Hunter leh Toofani hian 60-mm RP an hmang ve ve niin a sawi.

Sipaite sawidan (military term) ah chuan Mizoten bomb kan tih tamtak hi bomb a tling lova. Lung halna thlenga bomb kan tih mai laiin Wikipedia Encyclopedia pawh hian Grenades, Shells, Missile Warhead, Landmine, Rocket leh Torpedo thlengin bomb-ah a chhiar chiah lova. Duhtui deuh taka sawi dawn chuan puakdur thei nazawng hi bomb tia sawi theih pawh a ni meuh lo niin a lang. Chuvangin, Aizawl Bomb tih tawngkam pawh hi mi thenkhat te chuan tawngkam uchuakah an ngai nghe nghe a. Thlawhna atanga Mizoram Beih tih mai hi a dik zawk niin an ngai a ni. Chutihlaiin, Rocket hmanga Israel leh Palestine hote emaw an inralsai chang pawhin CNN leh BBC mai bakah New York Times-te thleng pawhin, “Bomb-in an inbei a…” an ti ve mai bawk. Engpawhnisela, Mizote hi India sorkarin ralpui phiarin a khua leh tui chunga Air Operation a neihkhum awmchhun kan ni ta rih a ni.

ENGATINGE?
Engatinge? He zawhna hi Mizote thinlungah a cham reng dawn a ni. Awmze neia history zir tur chuan bika inhriatna (exclusivism) hi paihbo a tul fo thin a. India ram ang democracy ramah chuan hruaituten tute emaw an huat bik hrim hrim vang emaw, thah chimih vek an duh bik emaw vang ngawtin an duh ang angin ro an rel thei ngawt hauh lova, an rel ngai hek lo tih chu tlang hriat a ni. Khatiang taka min rawn bei chiam mai khan chhan a nei a, thlirna zim deuh tak atang chuan a chhan diktak hriatchhuah a harsa thei ang a— chhanna dik hre turin kan thlirna kan tihzau ve te pawh a tul bawk ang.

Tunhnuah, ralmuang atanga han thlirlet leh hian kha buaina hmetmit nghal tura India sorkar inbuatsaih nasatzia kha a langchiang ta tawlh tawlh a. Thenawm ramte nen innghirngho mek India tan inbiakpawhna leh inkalpawhna changtlung lo em em karah kha helna kha ralpui phiara phiar nghal rum rum loh rual a ni lo. Khatih hunlaia Mizoram leh Assam sorkar thuneituten MNF te dinhmun diktak, an sipai neihzat, an ralthuam neihzat leh ramdang sipaite inrawlh leh rawlh loh nen lam an hriatdan lo inan lohzia pawh document hrang hrang enkualin a langchiang ta hle bawk a. Hmarchhak kila hmun pawimawh tak (geo-strategic location) luahtu District Council enkawl tereuhte in India sorkar laka indo a puang ngam mai khan (an hmachhawn turte dinhmun diktak an hriat hleihtheih rih bawk si loh avangin) sorkar laipui thinphu a tirang nghal hle a ni. Mizoram chhunga la tangkhangte ngei pawhin thuchiang thawn tur an haihchham laiin sorkar laipui tan kha buaina kha ngaihthah theih miah lohna tur chhan thil thenkhat a awm—

1) Indo-Pakistan War (1965) hlimchhawn a ni a. Indo-Sino Conflict (1961) boruak pawh a la dai fel lo. Chutihlaiin, MNF te khan a tir phat atangin India sorkar ngainat loh ramdangte nen inzawmna an nei a. Phailam chanchinbumite phei chuan an inzawm ngei a ni tih finfiahna chiang tak neia insawiin uar tak takin an ziak nghal a. Tin, Aizawla Police hotupa J. S. Pathak, Deputy Superintendent of Police khan Aizawl Police Station O/C hnenah report thehlut nghalin MNF te leh ramdang inzawmna kha thilchiang tak anih thu a ziak a. He report hi sorkar laipui lamin an ngai thutak hle. Chuvangin, rampum tana thil pawithui zawk a thlen palh venthawn vang pawhin theih ang anga chet lak mai kha India sorkar tan a hmanhmawh thlak hle ang.

2) Naga National Council (NNC) ten August 1947-a Nagaland tan Independence an puan hnuah NNC te vek hian January, 1950 khan India sorkar lakah Independence an puang nawn leh a. Hetih chhung zawng hian Civil Disobedience Movement hmangin zalenna an sual a, sorkar thiltih an boycott a, Sikul atangin an in lachhuak a, sorkarah chhiah a pe duh lo bawk a. Amaherawhchu, thawklehkhatah sorkar leh sipai mipawimawhte bakah an hmunhmate hupbeh barh tumin an bei lo. Buaina punlun zel avangin 1956 hnulamah chuan India sipaite nen an inbei nasa ta hle. Mizoramah erawh chuan March 1, 1966 atangin tharum hmangin India sorkar chu Mizoram atanga umchhuah vek a, mahnia ro in rel (Sovereign Democratic Republic) ram nih nghal kan tum a— India lakah indo kan puang a ni. Khawvel history kan en chuan hetiang ang thil hi eng ram mahin an ngai thupui lo ngai lova, an chakna leh theihna zawng zawng nen an chhanglet thin. Mizote chetdan avang khan India sorkarin a thinurna leh a fimkhurna chu nasa takin a lanchhuah tir nghal a. Prime Minister leh Home Minister-ten statement dengkhawng tak an siam nghe nghe a ni.

3) Air Operation neih nghal a tulna chhan (immediate cause) nia lang ta ber erawh chu mi pawimawh tangkhang thahnem tak chhanchhuah thuai a tul vang a ni a, a ram humhim thuai tura chet nghal a tul vang a ni thei bawk ang. Mizo ni lo, sorkar mipawimawh Aizawla awmte chu inhumhimna zawngin 1st Assam Rifles hmunah an tlan lut deuh vek a. Chu hmunah chuan nunau nen an inawmpawlh nuk a, March 3, 1966 velah te phei kha chuan tui in tur an tlachham tan hle tawh a; chu hmun atang chuan Distress Message (SOS) an thawnchhuak reng bawk. Helhovin an danbeh chung mite chhanchhuah dan tur chu sorkar laipuiin mutmawh hnarmawhah a nei a ni.

Khang hunlai a rampawn atanga Mizoram luhna mumal awmchhun Aizawl-Silchar inkar kawngpui kha BRTF in an enkawl a, black topping a ni tawh a, hmun thenkhatah phei chuan awlsam taka motor 2 inpelh mai theihna khawpa zaute pawh a awm tawh nghe nghe. MNF ten Bilkhawthlir thlang lawka Dap Lei, thira siam chu tihchhiat tumin an bei naa, an tichhe thei lova, a awn deuh tlui chauh a ni. He lei hi zawhtlang theih a la ni tho naa, India sipaite khan an tichhe nghal vek a. Chawplehchilhin a thar an dawh chawp a, chu chu an rawn zawhkai ta a ni. Hmun thenkhatah kawng dal turin MNF ten thing an kit nual a, India sipaiten ambush tenau thenkhat an hmachhawn bawk a. Chung bak chu vai sipai lo dang turin MNF te khan tihtheih vak an nei lova, Mizoram rawn beitute khan kawnglakah harsatna tihtham an tawk ta lo reng a ni.

Indian Army officer pakhat, Mizoram buai laia reilote rawn chuangchhuak ve zawk, a pension hnuah Assam-a ULFA hel beihna Operation Rhino ah pawh a thurawn an la lak ve zauh zauh thin chuan email in he thu hi min rawn thawn a, “India sorkar khan MNF te dinhmun diktak leh Mizoram boruak kha hrechiang hmasa phawt thei sela chuan Air Operation a neihtir lovang…” tiin. He ngaihdan hi Institute for Defence Studies & Analyses, New Delhi kan thiannu pakhat (Associate Fellow) pawhin khang hunlai boruak thlirin a dikna chen thui tak awmin a hria a, “Tul uk lovah Mizorama Air Operation neih anih chungchanga mawhphurtu ber chu India Intelligence-te an ni” a ti hial nghe nghe.

Mizoram Buai leh a chhehvel khan Mizo History-ah dinhmun pawimawh ber zinga mi a luah kumkhua tawh dawn a, he hnam hian a aia pawimawh zawk a tawng tawh lo hial mahna! Chuvangin, ngun tak leh zau zawka zir thiam a tul a ni. Hun kal tawha thilthleng anih avang leh mi tamtakin sawi hrehawm an la tih em em anih avangin lehkha pawimawh (document) pahnih/khat chauh en chunga ngaihdan siam zung zung leh sawi chiam a felhlel ve thei bawk. Mahni puala University hial nei tawh Mizo hnam hian zirchiang lo leh ngaihtuah chik lova thil sawi mai mai bansan ila, rilru no (sentiment) khawih thei— no ngiai ngiai leh zam chiai chiai piahlamah thudik zawk zawng peih turin insangmar ila.

Politician hote hi chuan vawiinah thu pakhat an rawn sawi a, naktukah thudang an rawn nei leh mai a, an thu leh hla hi ngaihdan chintawk kan nei fo. Researcher leh Historian te erawh thudik thawkhat leh awmze nei chhakchhuak thin tura beisei an ni reng a. Engemaw mai mai avangin vawiin a an thusawi hi naktukah ti danglam leh zung zung lo tura beisei an ni bawk a— khawvel hian an lak atang hian thudik zawk a beisei tlat reng a ni.

Zirtlak thilthleng min lo hnutchhiah ngam tu te chungah khan he hnam hian lawmthu a sawi thei lo anih pawhin zah taka chibai buk tal erawh an phu a ni.

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